Archive: October, 2016

RAPED SPANNING TREE PROTOCOL – RSTP

October 29, 2016 by Neel Rao

Filed under Network

Last modified November 5, 2016

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) The IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol was designed to keep a switched or bridged network loop free, with adjustments made to the network topology dynamically. A topology change typically takes 30 seconds, where a port moves from the Blocking state to the Forwarding state after two intervals of the Forward Delay timer. As technology has improved, 30 seconds has become …

Protecting the Spanning Tree Protocol Topology

October 29, 2016 by Neel Rao

Filed under Network

Last modified November 5, 2016

Protecting Against Unexpected BPDUs   A network running STP uses BPDUs to communicate between switches (bridges). Switches become aware of each other and of the topology that interconnects them. After a Root Bridge is elected, BPDUs are generated by the Root and are relayed down through the spanning-tree topology. Eventually, all switches in the STP domain receive the Root’s BPDUs such that the network converges …

VLAN TRUNKING PROTOCOL – VTP

October 29, 2016 by Neel Rao

Filed under Network

Last modified November 5, 2016

VLAN Trunking Protocol As the previous chapter demonstrated, VLAN configuration and trunking on a switch or a small group of switches is fairly intuitive. Campus network environments, however, usually consist of many interconnected switches. Configuring and managing a large number of switches, VLANs, and VLAN trunks can quickly get out of control. Cisco has developed a method to manage VLANs across the campus network. The …

Ethernet Concepts

October 22, 2016 by Neel Rao

Filed under Network

Last modified October 22, 2016

Ethernet Concepts This section reviews the varieties of Ethernet and their application in a campus network. Recall how the bandwidth requirements for each network segment are determined by the types of applications in use, the traffic flows within the network, and the size of the user community served. Ethernet scales to support increasing bandwidths and should be chosen to match the need at each point …

Cisco Modular Network Design

October 22, 2016 by Neel Rao

Filed under Network

Last modified October 22, 2016

Cisco Modular Network Design You can design a campus network in a logical manner, using a modular approach. In this approach, each layer of the hierarchical network model can be broken down into basic functional units. These units, or modules, can then be sized appropriately and connected together, while allowing for future scalability and expansion. You can divide enterprise campus networks into the following basic …

Cisco Layer 2 Switch Operation

October 22, 2016 by Neel Rao

Filed under Network

Last modified November 26, 2016

Cisco  Layer 2 Switch Operation Recall that with shared Ethernet networks using hubs, many hosts are connected to a single broadcast and collision domain. In other words, shared Ethernet media operates at OSI Layer 1. Each host must share the available bandwidth with every other connected host. When more than one host tries to talk at one time, a collision occurs, and everyone must back …

Cisco Catalyst Management

October 22, 2016 by Neel Rao

Filed under Network

Last modified October 22, 2016

Cisco Catalyst  Management Managing a Catalyst switch can be broken up into several topics. A switch runs an operating system, which provides a user interface and controls all processes that are used to forward packets. The following sections address all these topics. Operating Systems You can configure Cisco Catalyst switch devices to support many different requirements and features. When a PC is connected to the …

Layer 2 and Layer 3 Switching Functionality

October 21, 2016 by Neel Rao

Filed under Network

Last modified October 21, 2016

Layer 2 and Layer 3  Switching Functionality To understand how switches and routers should be chosen and placed in a network design, you should first understand how to take advantage of data communication at different layers. The OSI reference model separates data communication into seven layers, as shown in Table 1-2. Each layer has a specific function and a specific protocol so that two devices …

OSPF IP version 3 – OSPF-v3

October 21, 2016 by Neel Rao

Filed under Network

Last modified November 5, 2016

OSPFv3 ospf protocol is a widely used IGP in ipv4, ipv6 router, and dual-stack (IPv4/IPv6) environments. The ospf cisco upgrade to support ipv6 router generated a number of significant changes to how the protocol behaves. Understanding the differences between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 is required for the successful deployment and operation of an IPv6 network using ospf protocol for routing. This section describes OSPFv3, the ipv6-capable version of the …

OSPF SINGLE AREA CONFIGURATION

October 19, 2016 by Neel Rao

Filed under Network

Last modified October 21, 2016

OSPF SINGLE AREA CONFIGURATION R1# R1#conf t R1(config)#int fa0/0 R1(config-if)#ip add 172.16.2.200 255.255.255.0 R1(config-if)#no shut R1(config-if)#exit R1(config)#int s0/0 R1(config-if)#ip add 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.252 R1(config-if)#clock rate 64000 R1(config-if)#no shut R1#   R2#conf R2(config)#int f0/0 R2(config-if)#ip add 172.16.3.200 255.255.255.0 R2(config-if)#no shut R2(config-if)#int s0/0 R2(config-if)#ip add 172.16.1.2 255.255.255.252 R2(config-if)#clock rate 64000 R2(config-if)#no shut R2(config-if)#int s0/1 R2(config-if)#ip add 172.16.1.5 255.255.255.252 R2(config-if)#clock rate 64000 R2(config-if)#no shut R2(config-if)#end R2#   R3# R3#conf …